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Archive / 2013

Download No 4, 2013
No 4

Personal Opinion

The Fate of Academic Science in Russia (Subjective Notes of One of the Oldest Members of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Sciences)
The article examines the key issues of the relationship between science and technology, education, funding issues, personnel policies and performance. Emphasis is placed on the justification of measures to radically improve these areas of activity of the RAS. Due to the growing interest in the reorganization of the Russian Academy of Sciences, associated with the discussion and adoption of the law in the State Duma, the article analyzes the current problems of the development of our fundamental science: how to combine science with education, and general scientific research with the technological developments, how to supplement government funding raising funds from the commercialization of science, how to rejuvenate the Academy and make the necessary staff turnover, improving the performance of the activity of the RAS. At the same time, particularly, with comparative statistics the experience­ of the advanced countries of the world and national achievements are examined.
Key words: RAS, fundamental science, education, R&D, csience financing.

Abel Aghanbegyan, Academician, Head Department of Economic Theory and Policy, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (82, prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119571, Russian Federation).

Economic Policy


The Strategy of Transition to the Effective Contract and the Features of Motivation of Health Workers
The paper analyzes the factors of differentiation of wage for health workers, the structure of their work motivation and the role of the motive of making money. The problem of choosing a strategy of transition to effective contract — setting priorities for increase of the different parts of wages: base, depending on skill level, and challenging, depending on performance. It is found that the interpretation of the effective contract adopted by the Government may result in a low effectiveness of the introduction of this institution, if not complemented by changes in mechanisms to ensure compliance wage levels with skills of medical workers.
Key words: health care, motivation of health workers, effective contract.

Sergey Shishkin, Dr. Sci. (Econ.), Research Director, Institute for Health Economics, National Research University — Higer School of Economics (office 546, 20, Myasnitskaya ul., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation).
Alexander Temnitsky, Cand. Sci. (Sociology), Associate Professor, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (Bldg. 76, prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119454, Russian Federation).
Alla Chirikova, Dr. Sc. (Sociology), Main Research Fellow, Institute for Sociology, Russian Academy of Sciense
(Bldg. 5, 24/35, Krzyzanowsky ul., Moscow, 117218, Russian Federation).


Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle: Modern Aspects
The primary purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis of capital mobility reduction after the global financial crisis of 2008—2009. Through the constructed models we tested hypotheses about the long-term and short-term mobility of global capital by estimating the correlation between savings and investment rates. The paper also concerns the question of capital mobility in Russia. Recommendations on monetary policy in Russia in the coming years based on the achieved results are made.
Key words: Feldstein-Horioka puzzle, capital mobility, monetary policy.

Andrei Zubarev, Research Fellow at the Center for the Studies of Central Banks` Problems of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration
(82, prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, 119571, Russian Federation).
Pavel Trunin, Head of Monetary Policy Department of the Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy
(3-5, Bldg 1, Gazetny per., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation).


Social Market Economy in Germany as an Attempt to Overcome the Totalitarian Heritage
This paper deals with the relations between prevailing patterns of thought, economic ideology and policy-making in transition post-war West Germany. The author investigates the emergence of the concept of Social Market Economy in the writings of Walter Eucken and Alfred Mueller-Armack and analyzes the particularities of its implementation in Germany. In the conclusion he makes an attempt to give a preliminary answer to the question of what may be learned from the West German post-war experience for the transition process in Russia, beginning in the 1990’s.
Key words: post-war Germany, Social Market Economy, transition processes, neoliberalism, path-dependency.

Joachim Zweynert, PD Dr., Professor of International Political Economyat the University of Witten/Herdecke
(Germany, Alfred-Herrhausen-Str. 50, 58448 Witten).

Antitrust Policy

Alexander KURDIN, Anastasia SHASTITKO
The Usage of Economic Analysis in Antitrust Litigations: the Empirical Investigation
The article is devoted to the empirical investigation of the usage of economic analysis in antitrust cases in Russia. The application of economic analysis to antitrust litigations has long been promoted by the orders of the Federal Antimonopoly Service of Russia. However, economic analysis is not always obligatory, and it is conducted with varying degrees of thoroughness and with different sets of instruments. The authors of this work examine the sample of Russian antitrust litigations from 2007 to 2011, with the use of quantitative methods, and come to the following conclusions: economic analysis does not bring additional costs of time by itself; an application or a contestation of economic analysis may contribute to a favourable result of litigation for a corresponding party; and the usage of specific instruments depends on the kind of incriminated antitrust law violation.
Key words: antitrust, economic analysis, quantitative methods, the violation of the law.

Alexander Kurdin, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), researcher, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (82, prosp. Vernadskogo, Moscow, 117571, Russian Federation).
Anastasia Shastitko, undergraduate Universite Paris-1 Pantheon-Sorbonne
(90, rue de Tolbiac, Paris, 75013, France).
Structure Alternatives of the Public Services Production
The article presents an ideal model and discrete structural alternatives that occur in the production of public services. The elements of the transformation of the institutional structure of production of public services and the paradigm shifts in theoretical foundation and practical tools from bureaucratic type (public administration) to managerial (public management and public governance) are demonstrated. In relation to the reform of public management in the OECD countries and Russia, conditions and restrictions success of reforms are discussed.
Key words: discrete structure alternatives, extended economics of bureaucracy, the new institutional economics, institutional structure of production, public services.

Evgeny Kapoguzov, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Economic Theory and Entrepreneurship, Omsk F. M. Dostoevsky State University (55, Mira prosp., Omsk, 644077, Russian Federation).

Analytics and Forecast

The Gravity Model of Russian Foreign Trade: Case of a Country with Large Area and Long Border
The paper contains the results of theoretical development and empirical verification of spatial gravity model of Russian trade. The authors conclude that the spatial variables and especially the location of the state border checkpoints have a significant effect on the volume and routes of Russian imports.
Key words: international trade, gravity model, border checkpoints.

Andrey Kaukin, researcher at Russian Foreign Trade Academy (4a, Pudovkina ul., Moscow, 119285);
Gaidar Institute (5, Gazetniy per., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation).
Georgy Idrisov, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Head of Industrial Organization and Infrastructure Economics Department,
Gaidar Institute (5, Gazetniy per., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation).
Keynesian Analysis of Dynamic Processes in the Economies of Germany and France over the Last Decade (1999—2012)
In the paper, a Keynesian analysis of the economic development of France and Germany in the years 1999-2012 is performed. The calculations based on simple models of the Harrod-Domar and monetary Tobin’s dynamic models show that the assessment and forecast of economic growth of leading eurozone countries are best described by a Tobin’s secured equilibrium growth model. Consideration of the economic development of France shows the rise in 2014, while Germany’s economic recovery will begin in 2013 and continue into 2014.
Key words: Keynesian analysis, economic dynamics, economic growth models.

Ulan Dzhamakeev, a junior researcher, Institute of Mathematical Studies of Complex Systems, Lomonosov Moscow State University (1, Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119992, Russian Federation)
Freedom, Ratings and Economic Growth: In Search of Reliable Communication
Ratings that assess the quality of institutions is widely used in the scientific literature. Among them there are those who were perfected for decades. All these ratings are used to peer review ranking countries. The authors believe that these estimates are fundamentally incompatible and therefore not applicable for the comparative analysis in a single time point of observation. A group of variables, which are used in assessment of «political» institutions only for the presence or absence of a particular phenomenon is offered. Such a kit is suitable for the variable cross-sectional analysis. A rating based on a combination of the proposed variables is considered. The use of panel regression can alleviate the problem of poor compatibility expert estimates.
Key words: institutions, ratings, comparative analysis, panel regression.

Rinat Menyashev, Associate Researcher, Laboratory of Applied Analysis of Institutions and Social Capital, National Research University — Higher School of Economics
(Bldg G, 11, Pokrovsky bul., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation).
Konstantin Yanovsky, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Head of the Laboratory of the Institutional Problems of the Scientific direction of "Political Economy and Regional Development", Gaidar Institute
(5, Gazetny per., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation).
Timur Natkhov, Cand. Sci. (Econ.), Associate Professor of the Department of Institutional Economics (Applied Economics), National Research University — Higher School of Economics
(26, Shabolovka ul., Moscow, 119049, Russian Federation;
Bldg 3, 24, Myasnitskaya ul., Moscow, 101000, Russian Federation).

Classics of Economics

Essays in Political Economy (Theoretical an Applied Aspects).
Chapter 6. Political Economy and Land
 In this chapter, the author examines the political and economic basis of land ownership. Earth is not a manmade good, but investing some money can improve its properties. In addition the value of land can be increased as a result of improved transportation and other types of infrastructure. The owner (lessee) extracts in the production of economic rent, the value of which is the amount of output that exceeds the size of a proper remuneration for the farmer.
Key words: political economy, land, economic rent, farmer.

John Cairnes (1823—1875), the British economist.